At Savatthi.
-"Monks, I will teach you the burden, the carrier of the burden, the taking up of the burden, and the casting off of the burden. 1 Listen & pay close attention. I will speak."

-"As you say, lord," the monks responded.

Ở Sàvatthi.
-"Này các Tỷ-kheo, Ta sẽ giảng cho các Ông về gánh nặng, mang gánh nặng lên, đặt gánh nặng xuống. Hăy nghe và khéo suy nghiệm, Ta sẽ giảng." -"Thưa vâng, bạch Thế Tôn." Các tỷ kheo vâng đáp Thế Tôn.


The Blessed One said, "And which is the burden? -'The five clinging-aggregates,' it should be said. Which five?
-Form as a clinging-aggregate,
-Feeling as a clinging-aggregate,
-Perception as a clinging-aggregate,
-Fabrications as a clinging-aggregate,
-Consciousness as a clinging-aggregate.
This, monks, is called the burden.

Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là gánh nặng? Năm thủ uẩn là câu trả lời. Thế nào là năm?
-Sắc thủ uẩn,
-Thọ thủ uẩn,
-Tưởng thủ uẩn,
-Hành thủ uẩn,
-Thức thủ uẩn.
Này các Tỷ-kheo, đây gọi là gánh nặng.


And which is the carrier of the burden? 'The person,' it should be said. This venerable one with such a name, such a clan-name. This is called the carrier of the burden.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là kẻ mang gánh nặng? Người là câu trả lời. Vị Tôn giả này có tên như thế này, ḍng họ như thế này. Này các Tỷ-kheo, đây gọi là kẻ mang gánh nặng!


And which is the taking up of the burden? The craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e., craving for sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming. This is called the taking up of the burden.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là mang gánh nặng lên? Chính là tham ái này đưa đến tái sanh, câu hữu với hỷ và tham, đi t́m hỷ lạc chỗ này, chỗ kia. Tức là dục ái, hữu ái, phi hữu ái. Này các Tỷ-kheo, đây gọi là mang gánh nặng lên.


And which is the casting off of the burden? The remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving. This is called the casting off of the burden.

Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là đặt gánh nặng xuống? Đây là sự ly tham, đoạn diệt ái ấy một cách hoàn toàn, sự từ bỏ, sự xả ly, sự giải thoát, sự không chấp thủ. Này các Tỷ-kheo, đây gọi là đặt gánh nặng xuống.


That is what the Blessed One said. Having said that, the One Well-gone, the Teacher, said further:

Thế Tôn thuyết như vậy, Thiện Thệ nói như vậy xong, bậc Đạo Sư lại nói thêm:


A burden indeed
are the five aggregates,
and the carrier of the burden
is the person.
Taking up the burden in the world
	is stressful.

Casting off the burden
	is bliss.
Having cast off the heavy burden
and not taking on another,

pulling up craving,
along with its root,
	one is free from hunger,
		totally unbound.

Năm uẩn là gánh nặng, 
Kẻ gánh nặng là người; 
Mang lấy gánh nặng lên, 
Chính là khổ ở đời. 

C̣n đặt gánh nặng xuống, 
Tức là lạc (không khổ), 
Đặt gánh nặng xuống xong, 
Không mang thêm gánh khác. 

Nếu nhổ khát ái lên, 
Tận cùng đến gốc rễ, 
Không c̣n đói và khát, 
Được giải thoát tịnh lạc! 



1. This discourse parallels the teaching on the four noble truths, but with a twist. The "burden" is defined in the same terms as the first noble truth, the truth of suffering & stress. The taking on of the burden is defined in the same terms as the second noble truth, the origination of stress; and the casting off of the burden, in the same terms as the third noble truth, the cessation of stress. The fourth factor, however — the carrier of the burden — has no parallel in the four noble truths, and has proven to be one of the most controversial terms in the history of Buddhist philosophy. When defining this factor as the person (or individual, puggala), the Buddha drops the abstract form of the other factors, and uses the ordinary, everyday language of narrative: the person with such-and-such a name. And how would this person translate into more abstract factors? He doesn't say. After his passing away, however, Buddhist scholastics attempted to provide an answer for him, and divided into two major camps over the issue. One camp refused to rank the concept of person as a truth on the ultimate level. This group inspired what eventually became the classic Theravada position on this issue: that the "person" was simply a conventional designation for the five aggregates. However, the other camp — who developed into the Pudgalavadin (Personalist) school — said that the person was neither a ultimate truth nor a mere conventional designation, neither identical with nor totally separate from the five aggregates. This special meaning of person, they said, was required to account for three things: the cohesion of a person's identity in this lifetime (one person's memories, for instance, cannot become another person's memories); the unitary nature of rebirth (one person cannot be reborn in several places at once); and the fact that, with the cessation of the khandhas at the death of an arahant, he/she is said to attain the Further Shore. However, after that moment, they said, nothing further could be said about the person, for that was as far as the concept's descriptive powers could go.

As might be imagined, the first group accused the second group of denying the concept of anatta, or not-self; whereas the second group accused the first of being unable to account for the truths that they said their concept of person explained. Both groups, however, found that their positions entangled them in philosophical difficulties that have never been successfully resolved.

Perhaps the most useful lesson to draw from the history of this controversy is the one that accords with the Buddha's statements in MN 72, where he refuses to get involved in questions of whether a person has a live essence separate from or identical to his/her body, or of whether after death there is something of an arahant that exists or not. In other words, the questions aren't worth asking. Nothing is accomplished by assuming or denying an ultimate reality behind what we think of as a person. Instead, the strategy of the practice is to comprehend the burden that we each are carrying and to throw it off. As SN 22.36 points out, when one stops trying to define oneself in any way, one is free from all limitations — and that settles all questions.

 Chủ biên và điều hành: TT Thích Giác Đẳng.

 Những đóng góp dịch thuật xin gửi về TT Thích Giác Đẳng tại
Cập nhập ngày: Thứ Sáu 08-11-2006

Kỹ thuật tŕnh bày: Minh Hạnh & Thiện Pháp

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